1. In the sciences, even questionable examples of research fraud are harshly punished.
P. But no such mechanism exists in the humanities—much of what humanities researchers call research does not lead to results that are replicable by other scholars.
Q. Given the importance of interpretation in historical and literary scholarship, humanities researchers are in a position where they can explain away deliberate and even systematic distortion.
R. Mere suspicion is enough for funding to be cut off; publicity guarantees that careers can be effectively ended.
S. Forgeries which take the form of pastiches in which the forger intersperses fake and real parts can be defended as mere mistakes or aberrant misreading.
6. Scientists fudging data have no such defences.
Answer with explanationAnswer: Option B
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